General

  • Inhibition of Chondrocyte and Synovial Cell Death After Exposure to Commonly Used Anesthetics: Chondrocyte Apoptosis After Anesthetics

    Background:

    An intra-articular injection of local anesthetics is a common procedure for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It has been shown that these agents are toxic to articular cartilage and synovial tissue in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, and in some cases, they may lead to postarthroscopic glenohumeral chondrolysis (PAGCL). However, the role of apoptosis in cell death is still unclear, and the potential role of apoptosis inhibition in minimizing chondrocyte and synovial cell death has not been reported.

    Purpose: (1) To quantify the degree of apoptotic cell death in chondrocytes and synovial cells exposed to local anesthetics, and(2) to determine whether caspase inhibition could reduce cell death.

    Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.

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  • Platelet rich fibrin and alloplast in the treatment of intrabony defect: A case report

    Abstract

    Periodontal regeneration is defined as the reproduction or reconstitution of a lost or injured part to restore the architecture and function of the periodontium. The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is to regenerate the lost periodontal tissues caused by periodontitis. The most positive outcome of periodontal regenerative procedures in intra bony defect has been achieved with bone grafts. For complete regeneration, delivery of growth factors in a local environment holds a great deal in adjunct to bone grafts. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is considered as second generation platelet concentrate, consisting of viable platelets, releasing various growth factors. Hence, this case report aims to investigate the clinical and radiological (bone fill) effectiveness of autologous PRF along with the use of alloplastic bone mineral in the treatment of intra bony defects.

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  • Effect of Diet-Induced Vitamin D Deficiency on Rotator Cuff Healing in a Rat Model

    Abstract

    Background: Few studies have considered hormonal influences, particularly vitamin D, on healing.

    Hypothesis: Vitamin D deficiency would have a negative effect on the structure of the healing tendon-bone interface in a rat model and would result in decreased tendon attachment strength.

    Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.

    Methods: Vitamin D deficiency was induced in 28 male Sprague-Dawley rats using a specialized vitamin D-deficient diet and ultraviolet light restriction. Serum levels of vitamin D were measured after 6 weeks. These vitamin D-deficient animals (experimental group) plus 32 rats with normal vitamin D levels (controls) underwent unilateral detachment of the right supraspinatus tendon from the greater tuberosity of the humerus, followed by immediate repair using bone tunnel suture fixation. The animals were sacrificed at 2- and 4-week intervals after surgery for biomechanical analysis. A paired t test was used to compare serum vitamin D levels at day 0 and at 6 weeks. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare load-to-failure and stiffness values between the experimental group and controls. Bone density and new bone formation at the tendon insertion site on the greater tuberosity were assessed with micro-computed tomography (CT). The organization of collagen tissue, new bone formation, vascularity at the tendon-bone interface, fibrocartilage at the tendon-bone interface, and collagen fiber continuity between the tendon and bone tissue were evaluated with safranin O and picrosirius red staining.

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  • Effect of Diet-Induced Vitamin D Deficiency on Rotator Cuff Healing in a Rat Model

    Abstract

    Background: Few studies have considered hormonal influences, particularly vitamin D, on healing.

    Hypothesis: Vitamin D deficiency would have a negative effect on the structure of the healing tendon-bone interface in a rat model and would result in decreased tendon attachment strength.

    Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.

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  • Platelet-Rich Plasma Efficacy Versus Corticosteroid Injection Treatment for Chronic Severe Plantar Fasciitis

    Abstract

    Background: Chronic plantar fasciitis is a common orthopedic condition that can prove difficult to successfully treat. In this study, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a concentrated bioactive blood component rich in cytokines and growth factors, was compared to traditional cortisone injection in the treatment of chronic cases of plantar fasciitis resistant to traditional nonoperative management.

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  • The effect of platelet-rich plasma on osteochondral defects treated with mosaicplasty

    Abstract

    Purpose

    This study investigated the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on articular surfaces on which the mosaicplasty technique was performed. Our hypothesis was that PRP can accelerate the osseointegration process and enhance the quality of articular integrity after the mosaicplasty procedure.

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  • Effect of platelet-rich plasma-incorporated gelatin hydrogel microspheres and subchondral drilling on equine cartilage defects

    Abstract

    We evaluated the effect of platelet-rich plasma-incorporated gelatin hydrogel microsphere (PRP/GM) together with subchondral drilling for cartilage regeneration in horses. Cartilage defects (diameter, 4.5 mm; depth, 3.0 mm) were created in both third carpal bones of six thoroughbred horses. A subchondral hole was drilled at the center of this cartilage defect (diameter, 2.0 mm; depth, 35 mm) in one randomly selected carpal joint (test joint), whereas no subchondral hole was made in the contralateral joint (control joint). Thereafter, the test joint was injected with PRP/GM and the control joint with saline-infused GM. Additional injections of PRP/GM were given 14 and 28 days after surgery. After 16 weeks, histological analysis was conducted. The macroscopic and histological scores of the test group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P < 0.05). These data indicated that the application of PRP/GM together with subchondral drilling accelerated cartilage regeneration in horses.

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  • Dextrose prolotherapy for recalcitrant coccygodynia

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: To present the results of dextrose prolotherapy undertaken for chronic non-responding coccygodynia in 37 patients.

    METHODS: 14 men and 23 women (mean age, 36 years) with chronic coccygodynia not responding to conservative treatment for more than 6 months were included. 27 of them had received local steroid injections. A visual analogue score (VAS) was recorded for all patients before and after injection of 8 ml of 25% dextrose and 2 ml of 2% lignocaine into the coccyx. In 8 patients with a VAS of more than 4 after the second injection, a third injection was given 4 weeks later.

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  • Hyaluronic Acid and Platelet Rich Plasma in Hip Osteoarthritis: Work in Progress

    Introduction

    In the last decade Hyaluronic Acid (HA) and, more recently, Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) have been used in the treatment of hip osteoarthritis (OA) [1]. Sound basic research supports their therapeutic potential.

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  • Effect of Platelet Lysate on Human Cells Involved in Different Phases of Wound Healing

    Abstract

    Background

    Platelets are rich in mediators able to positively affect cell activity in wound healing. Aim of this study was to characterize the effect of different concentrations of human pooled allogeneic platelet lysate on human cells involved in the different phases of wound healing (inflammatory phase, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix secretion and epithelialization).

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  • Comparing PRP Injections With ESWT for Athletes With Chronic Patellar Tendinopathy.

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of injections of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) compared with focused extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) among athletes with chronic patellar tendinopathy (jumper\'s knee).

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  • PDGF and VEGF Levels in Platelet-Rich Plasma

    Abstract

    PDGF and VEGF are two of the most potent mitogen for connective tissue, its secretion appears to be particularly important when the source is Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP), hence the latter leading role in tissue regeneration. ELISA PDGFBB levels in PRP, Platelet Poor Plasma (PPP) and exudates, were determined in 32 healthy subjects before and 24 hours after ingestion of Aspirin (ASA) and Clopidogrel (CLO). Results: PDGFBB baseline levels were 10.6

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  • Fake Knee Surgery as Good as Real Procedure, Study Finds

    A fake surgical procedure is just as good as real surgery at reducing pain and other symptoms in some patients suffering from torn knee cartilage, according to a new study that is likely to fuel debate over one of the most common orthopedic operations.

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  • Fake Knee Surgery as Good as Real Procedure, Study Finds

    Abstract

    A fake surgical procedure is just as good as real surgery at reducing pain and other symptoms in some patients suffering from torn knee cartilage, according to a new study that is likely to fuel debate over one of the most common orthopedic operations.

    As many as 700,000 people in the U.S. undergo knee surgery each year to treat tears in a crescent-shaped piece of cartilage known as the meniscus, which acts as a shock absorber between the upper and lower portions of the knee joints. The tears create loose pieces of cartilage that doctors have long thought interfere with motion of the joints, causing pain and stiffness.

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  • Role of Platelet Rich Plasma Gel in Bone Healing of Black Bengal Goats

    Abstract

    The study was conducted to evaluate homogenous platelets rich plasma (PRP) gel in the bone healing process. There are limited researches on the use of biomaterials to assist healing process in Bangladesh done earier. Therefore, this experiment was carried out to exploit the therapeutic effects of PRP gel on healing process. For bone healing study, total 6 oblique tibial fracture cases in goats were created. Goats were divided into three groups with two animals in each group bearing weight 15-20 kg and age 1-3 years. Among these two groups were treated with homogenous PRP gel and one group was untreated served as control and fracture cases were corrected with open reduction and internal fixation using bone plate with screw and surgical stainless steel wire (18 Gauze) suture. Goats showed a satisfactory result on bone healing after using PRP gel. Post operative radiography confirmed that bone fragments were well maintained until healing occurred and radiograph showed negligible callus at 30 days, complete healing occur. On the other hands, it takes 60 days for immobilization in untreated group. In treatment groups there was no periosteal reaction at the fracture site. No postoperative complication was observed at surgical site. This study could help veterinarians to consider natural biomaterial product specially homogenous PRP gel for a good healing of bone with minimum complications. Further studies are necessary for the molecular investigation of healing process and proper establishment of commercially available of PRP gel in our country and easyiest way of application.

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  • JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE

    Nowadays magnetic nanoparticles have a great potential for biomedical applications due to their specific properties. These particles usually consist of magnetic component, often magnetite (Fe3O4) or other iron oxide, and the nonmagnetic component which ensure interaction with biological material. Magnetic particles have an important role especially for the separation of biomolecules and diagnostics, however in recent years, there are also applications of magnetic nanoparticles in the field of tissue engineering. Mesenchymal stem cells are unique especially for their ability to differentiate into many cell types and are thus very promising tool for tissue regeneration. However, there are problems with their insufficient quantity, so it is necessary to expand these cells in vitro. Herein, nanofibers were created by electrospinning from a mixture of polycaprolactone and magnetic particles (Fe3O4) at size of 50 nm. Viability and proliferation of porcine mesenchymal stem cells as well as alkaline phosphatase activity were monitored at 1st, 7th and 21st day after seeding. Adhesion and proliferation of the cells were also verified by confocal microscopy. Significantly better viability and proliferation of cells in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles were demonstrated by MTS and PicoGreen assays, respectively. These measurements also correlate with the results of confocal microscopy.

    Nowadays magnetic nanoparticles have a great potential for biomedical applications due to their specific properties. These particles usually consist of magnetic component, often magnetite (Fe3O4) or other iron oxide, and the nonmagnetic component which ensure interaction with biological material. Magnetic particles have an important role especially for the separation of biomolecules and diagnostics, however in recent years, there are also applications of magnetic nanoparticles in the field of tissue engineering. Mesenchymal stem cells are uniqueespecially for their ability to differentiate into many cell types and are thus very promising tool for tissue regeneration. However, there are problems with their insufficient quantity, so it is necessary to expand these cells in vitro. Herein, nanofibers were created by electrospinning from a mixture of polycaprolactone and magnetic particles (Fe3O4) at size of 50 nm. Viability and proliferation of porcine mesenchymal stem cells as well as alkaline phosphatase activity were monitored at 1st, 7th and 21st day after seeding. Adhesion and proliferation of the cells were also verified by confocal microscopy. Significantly better viability and proliferation of cells in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles were demonstrated by MTS and PicoGreen assays, respectively. These measurements also correlate with the results of confocal microscopy.

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  • The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Pain, Function, and Quality of Life of Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Osteoarthritis, themost common articular disease in humankind, results fromdefects in articular cartilage and has significant effects on the quality of life (QOL) of patients, especially the elderly. For this reason, the effects of osteoarthritis and related therapeutical interventions on the QOL and patients\' functions have been assessed in different studies [1].

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  • The application of autologous Platelet Rich Plasma in the healing of maxillofacial bony defects

    Pathology, surgical resection and traumatic avulsion can lead to osseous defects of the jaw bones. Oral implants, enucleation of various cystic lesions, periodontal procedures, excision of tumorous lesions and maxillofacial reconstruction are highly dependent on successful bone regeneration. Bone regenerative techniques include graft materials, proteins and barrier membranes which are used to improve bone quality before or after ablative or reshaping procedures. The healing characteristics and hemostatic properties ofPlatelet Rich Plasma (PRP) enable it to support tissues and structures in desired configurations.

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  • Combined use of platelet rich plasma and vitamin c possitively affects differentation in vitro to mesodermal lineage of adult adipose equine mesenchymal stem cells

    Abstract

    Repair of injured soft and hard tissues in horses can benefit greatly from the use of regenerative therapies with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Vitamin-C and platelet-rich-plasma had been used for in vitro differentiation of MSC. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin-C, platelet-rich-plasma and their combination on the in vitro differentiation of adipose horse MSC. We isolated MSC from horse fat and differentiated them in vitro into osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages, as demonstrated by specific staining and RT-qPCR of selected genes. Combining vitamin-C and plasma-rich-platelet positively affected the ability of MSC to differentiate in vitro into mesodermal lineages during 14 days of culture; this effect was not as marked when differentiation was attempted for 21 days. This provides valuable information on the effect of combined use of these molecules in regenerative therapies and their potential application along stem cells for lesions of musculoskeletal tissue in sport horses.

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  • Hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) for knee osteoarthritis: results of a single-arm uncontrolled study with 1-year follow-upHypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) for knee osteoarthritis: results of a single-arm uncontrolled study with 1

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether prolotherapy, an injection-based complementary treatment for chronic musculoskeletal conditions, improves pain, stiffness, and function in adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (KOA) compared to baseline status.

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