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Background: Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is widely used for a variety of clinical applications. However, clinical outcome studies have not consistently shown positive effects. The composition of PRP differs based on many factors. An improved understanding of factors influencing the composition of PRP is important for the optimization of PRP use.
Conclusion: This study in healthy patients shows differences in the composition of PRP between men and women, with sex being a greater factor than age. There was also proteomic variability within the groups. These data support a personalized approach to PRP treatment and highlight the need for a greater understanding of the relationships between proteomic factors in PRP and clinical outcomes.
Background: Plantar fasciitis is local inflammation and fibrosis of the plantar aponeuroses reducing the quality of life and productivity of affected individuals. Pain in the heel and bottom of the foot is the ultimate outcome
Objectives: To compare the effect of platelet rich plasma and steroid injections among patients having planter fasciitis.
Background: Planter fasciitis, is by definition, inflammation of planter fascia. Most of the cases are well treated conservatively and a few responds to surgery only. Objectives of present study were evaluating the efficacy of a single injection of leukocyte free platelet rich plasma in plantar fasciitis and to derive a correlation between the clinical and radiological outcome.
Methods: The present study consisted of 120 patients of bilateral (PF), (240 feet). These patients were divided into two groups PRP group of 60 patients and Placebo group of 60 patients. The study was conducted on patients attending Orthopaedics outpatient department Post Graduate Institute of Medial Education and Research (PGIMER) from July 2011 to June 2012. A primary efficacy criterion was changes from baseline in pain using (VAS). Functional results, level of satisfaction and outcome were measured by - AOFAS Foot Scale. Correlation of clinical with radiological outcome were performed.
Background: Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are the most common pain management procedure performed in the US, however evidence of efficacy is limited. In addition, there is early evidence that the high dose of corticosteroids used can have systemic side effects. We describe the results of a case series evaluating the use of platelet lysate (PL) epidural injections for the treatment of lumbar radicular pain as an alternative to corticosteroids.
Methods: Registry data was obtained for patients (N = 470) treated with PL epidural injections presenting with symptoms of lumbar radicular pain and MRI findings that were consistent with symptoms. Collected outcomes included numeric pain score (NPS), functional rating index (FRI), and a modified single assessment numeric evaluation (SANE) rating.
Platelet Rich Plasma Supports Proliferation and Re-differentiation of Chondrocytes during In Vitro Expansion
Articular cartilage regeneration is insufficient to restore sports injuries or defects that can occur from trauma. Treatment options for cartilage repair include autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) by isolation, expansion, and reimplantation of healthy donor chondrocytes. Chondrocyte expansion onto 2D substrates leads to dedifferentiation and loss of the cellular phenotype. We aimed to overcome the state of dedifferentiation by biochemical stimuli with platelet derivatives such as platelet rich plasma (PRP) and hyper acute serum (HAS) to achieve sufficient cell numbers in combination with variable oxygen tension. Human articular chondrocytes from osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage chondrocytes were switched from 10% FCS supplementation to either 10% PRP or 10% HAS after initial passaging for further experiments under normoxic (20%O2) or hypoxic (1%O2) conditions.
Introduction: The treatment of patellar tendinopathies could be difficult. This is the reason why new treatments have been developed, among which platelet rich plasma (PRP) injections. Some clinical series have previously evaluated the effect of PRP in the treatment of proximal patellar tendinopathies. Recent systematic review concluded that PRP could be recommend as a treatment in such indication (1). Recently, the viscoelastic properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) on liquid connective tissue have been proposed for the treatment of tendinopathies (2). Some fundamental studies show encouraging results on HA's ability to promote tendon gliding and reduce adhesion as well as to improve tendon architectural organisation. Some observations also support its use in a clinical setting to improve pain and function.
Purpose: We aimed to compare the effect of PRP injection versus two injections of HA after three months on patients who have a proximal patellar tendinopathy.
Efficacy of platelet-rich plasma injections for symptomatic tendinopathy: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised injection-controlled trials
Aim To determine the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections for symptomatic tendinopathy.
Results: A total of 16 randomised controlled trials (18 groups) of PRP versus control were included. Median sample size was 35 patients, a study size that would require an effect size ≥1.0 to achieve statistical significance. PRP was more efficacious than control in reducing tendinopathy pain, with an effect size of 0.47 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.72, p<0.001), signifying a moderate treatment effect. Heterogeneity among studies was moderate (I2=67%, p<0.001). In subgroup analysis and meta-regression, studies with a higher proportion of female patients were associated with greater treatment benefits with PRP.
Conclusions: Injection of PRP is more efficacious than control injections in patients with symptomatic tendinopathy.
We report a case of Achilles tendinosis that was treated with a high volume, hydrodissection visualized by conventional B-mode ultrasound. Prior MRI revealed a thickened right Achilles tendon with a small defect. Ultrasound examination showed a thickened Achilles tendon with physical exam revealing a prominent Haglund's deformity, mild fusiform swelling and pain along the posterior Achilles (Figure 1 & 2). The condition had been poorly responsive to standard management including protected ambulation in a cam walker boot, anti-inflammatory medication, modalities and therapeutic exercise, as well as a platelet rich plasma injection. We suggest using high volume ultrasound guided injection adjacent to (anterior to) the Achilles tendon as an adjunct to treat this difficult clinical syndrome.
In the recent years there has been a paradigm shift in consideration of platelets from being just hemostatic cells to actually performing a myrad of diverse functions. The recent use of Platelet Rich Plasma as therapeutic agent is based on its growth factor content and the matrix provided by the platelets themselves. An overview of PRP, its uses in the field of medicine is provided for correct understanding of PRP therapy. Standardization of preparation and administration also remains a challenge due to various variables present. How beneficial are these individually tailored protocols, still remains to be seen.
Blood is mainly liquid plasma containing small solid components such as RBC, WBC and platelets. Platelets contain different growth factors and cytokines contributing to haemostasis and capable of stimulating healing of both bone and soft tissue.
Current research on common musculoskeletal problems, including osteoarticular conditions, tendinopathies, and muscle injuries, focuses on regenerative translational medicine. Platelet-rich plasma therapies have emerged as a potential approach to enhance tissue repair and regeneration. Platelet-rich plasma application aims to provide supraphysiological concentrations of platelets and optionally leukocytes at injured/pathological tissues mimicking the initial stages of healing. However, the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma is controversial in chronic diseases because patients' outcomes show partial improvements. Platelet-rich plasma can be customized to specific conditions by selecting the most appropriate formulation and timing for application or by combining platelet-rich plasma with synergistic or complementary treatments. To achieve this goal, researchers should identify and enhance the main mechanisms of healing. In this review, the interactions between platelet-rich plasma and healing mechanisms were addressed and research opportunities for customized treatment modalities were outlined. The development of combinational platelet-rich plasma treatments that can be used safely and effectively to manipulate healing mechanisms would be valuable and would provide insights into the processes involved in physiological healing and pathological failure.
Introduction: In the present study, we evaluated the effects of 2 courses of PRP injections with 3 weeks interval, on patient's quality of life and functional ability.
Materials and Method: It was a prospective study carried out on 55 patients (14 males & 41 females) in the Department of Orthopedics', Era's Lucknow Medical College, Lucknow, and Uttar Pradesh from Sep 2015 to March 2016. Age >40 years, Knee arthralgia (>3 months) and Radiologic evidence of articular damage (grades 1-3 of Kellgren-Lawrence scale) based on knee Osteoarthritis criteria of American College of Rheumatology were enrolled in our study. Two intra-articular injections of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) at 3 weeks interval was given and patient was regularly followed up after 3rd week, 6th week, 3 months & 6 months of the 1st injection
Deep nerve hydrodissection uses fluid injection under pressure to purposely separate nerves from areas of suspected fascial compression, which are increasingly viewed as potential perpetuating factors in recalcitrant neuropathic pain/complex regional pain. The usage of 5% dextrose water (D5W) as a primary injectate for hydrodissection, with or without low dose anesthetic, could limit anesthetic-related toxicity. An analgesic effect of 5% dextrose water (D5W) upon perineural injection in patients with chronic neuropathic pain has recently been described. Here we describe ultrasound-guided methods for hydrodissection of deep nerve structures in the upper torso, including the stellate ganglion, brachial plexus, cervical nerve roots, and paravertebral spaces. We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of 100 hydrodissection treatments in 26 consecutive cases with a neuropathic pain duration of months and the mean Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) 0-10 pain level of . The mean percentage of analgesia during each treatment session involving D5W injection without anesthetic was 88.1%
The effect of Hypertonic Dextrose injection on the control of pain associated with knee osteoarthritis
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dextrose injection on controlling pain associated with knee osteoarthritis.
Methods: To achieve the research objectives, available sampling was done using 80 patients with knee osteoarthritis referring to Taleghani Hos pital in 2017 and samples were divided into two groups: 15% dextrose injection and 25% hypertonic dextrose injection. This injection was performed at the beginning of the study, the first week, the fifth week and the ninth week. During these weeks, participants were asked to complete the WOMAC questionnaire implementing the VAS scale. After data collection, independent t-test and two-way variance analysis with repeated measures were used.
Conclusion: In general, it can be suggested that the use of dextrose prolotherapy is a simple, safe, inexpensive, accessible and less complicated method than other treatments in these patients.
Comparison between intra-articular ozone and placebo in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study
The aim of the trial was to determine the effectiveness of oxygen-ozone injections on knee osteoarthritis concerning pain reduction, joint functional improvement, and quality of life.
In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial, 98 patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) were randomized into two groups receiving intra-articular 20 μg/ml of ozone (OZ) or placebo (PBO) for 8 weeks. The efficacy outcomes for knee OA were the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Lequesne Index, Timed Up and Go Test (TUG Test), SF-36, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and Geriatric Pain Measure (GPM).
Treatment of First Metacarpophalangeal Joint Instability and Snapping Thumb Using Ultrasound-guided Prolotherapy and Hydrodissection: A Case Report
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Introduction/Purpose: There is no consensus on treatment or prognosis for Hepple stage V Osteochondral lesion of talus (OLTs), especially for lesion more than 1.5 cm2. This research was to investigate surgical techniques and clinical outcomes of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) scaffold for Hepple stage V OLTs.
Methods: 14 patients were treated by cancellous bone graft with PRP gel scaffold between 2013 and 2015 with average age of 38.9 years old and mean set of 23.5 months. Ankle X-ray and MRI were obtained at the final follow-up for evaluation. Functional outcomes were scored by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score, American Orthopaedics Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle- hindfoot score and Short Form (36) Survey score (SF-36). Range of motion (ROM) of ankle joint and complications were also recorded.
Results: 13 patients got the final follow-up with a mean duration of 18 months. MRI showed complete regeneration of subchondral bone and cartilage in all patients. The post-operative VAS, AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score and SF-36 score improved significantly (P<0.0001) without obvious complications.
Conclusion: We suggest that for the patients of Hepple stage V OLTs, cancellous bone graft with PRP scaffold may be a safe and effective treatment.
Clinical and economic effectiveness of the use of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of chronic wounds
The paper presents the results of the clinical use of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of long-term non-healing wounds of various etiologies in patients on inpatient treatment and outpatient monitoring in the department of surgical infections of the State-financed health institution, City clinical hospital No. 13, Moscow Health Department, from 2011 to 2016: test group and control group of 50 patients per each, comparable by gender, age, nature of pathology and area of wounds. When analyzing the data obtained, it was found that a significant reduction in the duration of patients treatment was achieved in the test group: the average epithelialization time for the wounds was 42.3
Ligament, cartilage, and meniscus injuries often have poor healing due to low vascularity and low proliferative abilities of the resident cells. Drawbacks with conventional treatment methodologies have prompted interest in a new approach we term "Regenerative Engineering" to regenerate orthopaedic tissues. The work of cells is of central importance in the Regenerative Engineering paradigm. In this regard, both differentiated cells and stem cells such as bone marrow stromal cells have been studied as sources for orthopaedic tissue regeneration. In addition, other stem cells such as those derived from peripheral blood, synovium, adipose, and other extraembryonic sources have been isolated and characterized and subsequently investigated for regenerating various orthopaedic tissues. In this review, recent developments in the stem cell-mediated regeneration of ligament, cartilage, and menisci are discussed.